Basics

Arabic is read from Right To Left.
Alphabet

Letters have Isolated and Final, Medial, Initial forms.

Hijā’ī Order

Letters are grouped by similarity of shape.

ﺎ ا Alif (ranges from e in bet, to a in father)
ﺑﺒﺐ ﺐ Ba (like b in bet)
ﺗﺘﺖ ﺕ Ta (like t in tip)
ﺛﺜﺚ ﺙ Tha (like th in three - tongue starts between your teeth)
ﺟﺠﺞ ﺝ Jeem (like j or g, depending on region)
ﺣﺤﺢ ﺡ Hha (breathy ha)
ﺧﺨﺦ ﺥ Kha (phlegmy gha or kha)
ﺪ ﺩ Dal (like d in dip)
ﺬ ﺫ Thal (like th in other - tongue at back of top teeth)
ﺮ ﺭ Ra (like Spanish r)
ﺰ ﺯ Zay (like z in zip)
ﺳﺴﺲ ﺱ Seen (like s in sip)
ﺷﺸﺶ ﺵ Sheen (like sh in she)
ﺻﺼﺺ ﺹ Saad (emphatic s, like s in subtle)
ﺿﻀﺾ ﺽ Daad (emphatic db, like d in duh)
ﻃﻄﻂ ﻁ Toh (emphatic t, like t in bottle)
ﻇﻈﻆ ﻅ Thoh (emphatic th, like th in thy)
ﻋﻌﻊ ﻉ Ayn
ﻏﻐﻎ ﻍ Ghayn (like French r)
ﻓﻔﻒ ﻑ Fa (like f in fun)
ﻗﻘﻖ ﻕ Qaf (koff, like k deep in the throat)
ﻛﻜﻚ ﻙ Kaf (like k in keep)
ﻟﻠﻞ ﻝ Lam (like Spanish l)
ﻣﻤﻢ ﻡ Meem (like m in mat)
ﻧﻨﻦ ﻥ Noon (like n in neat)
ﻫﻬﻪ ﻩ Ha (ha from chest, like ha in ah-ha!)
ﻮ ﻭ Wow (like w in wow, or oo in poodle)
ﻳﻴﻲ ﻱ Ya (like y in yes, or i in bit, or ie in piece)

Diacritical Marks

Harokat

َ fatha
ً fathatan
ِ kasra
ٍ kasratan
ُ dhomma
ٗ inverted dhomma
ٌ dhammatan
ّ shadda
ْ sukun (sokoon)
ٔ hamza above
ٕ hamza below
ٰ superscript Alif
ٖ subscript Alif

Pronunciation

أَ "ah"

اِ "i" like bit
Greetings

السَّلامُ ءَلَيكُم Greetings!
assalaamu ᶜalaykum
ا ل س ل ا م ء ل ي ك م (letters broken out)
(Islamic greeting, Levantine/shaami pronunciation)


أَهلا Hello! Hi!
ahla (a-ha-la)
ا ه ل ا (letters broken out)
(more Egyptian than Levantine)


أَهلا وسَهلا Hello!
ahla w sahla (a-ha-low-sa-ha-la)
ا ه ل ا و س ه ل ا (letters broken out)


مَر حَبا Hello!
marHaba
م ر ح ب ا (letters broken out)
(Levantine, not Egyptian)
Pronouns

أَنا I
ana


اِسمي my name
ismi
Nouns

الباب the door
al-baab


ماينة the city of...
madiinit
م ا ي ن ة (letters broken out)

Prepositions

مِن from
min


بِ in
bi