Basics

Arabic is read from Right To Left. The English pronunciation guides are still read Left to Right.

Alphabet

Letters have Isolated and Final, Medial, Initial forms.

Hijā’ī Order

Letters are grouped by similarity of shape.

ﺎ ا Alif (ranges from e in bet, to a in father)
ﺑﺒﺐ ﺐ Ba (like b in bet)
ة ﺗﺘﺖ ﺕ Ta (like t in tip)
ﺛﺜﺚ ﺙ Tha (like th in three - tongue starts between your teeth)
ﺟﺠﺞ ﺝ Jeem (like j or g, depending on region)
ﺣﺤﺢ ﺡ Hha (breathy ha)
ﺧﺨﺦ ﺥ Kha (phlegmy gha or kha)
ﺪ ﺩ Dal (like d in dip)
ﺬ ﺫ Thal (like th in other - tongue at back of top teeth)
ﺮ ﺭ Ra (like Spanish r)
ﺰ ﺯ Zay (like z in zip)
ﺳﺴﺲ ﺱ Seen (like s in sip)
ﺷﺸﺶ ﺵ Sheen (like sh in she)
ﺻﺼﺺ ﺹ Saad (emphatic s, like s in subtle)
ﺿﻀﺾ ﺽ Daad (emphatic db, like d in duh)
ﻃﻄﻂ ﻁ Toh (emphatic t, like t in bottle)
ﻇﻈﻆ ﻅ Thoh (emphatic th, like th in thy)
ﻋﻌﻊ ﻉ Ayn
ﻏﻐﻎ ﻍ Ghayn (like French r)
ﻓﻔﻒ ﻑ Fa (like f in fun)
ﻗﻘﻖ ﻕ Qaf (koff, like k deep in the throat)
ﻛﻜﻚ ﻙ Kaf (like k in keep)
ﻟﻠﻞ ﻝ Lam (like Spanish l)
ﻣﻤﻢ ﻡ Meem (like m in mat)
ﻧﻨﻦ ﻥ Noon (like n in neat)
ﻫﻬﻪ ﻩ Ha (ha from chest, like ha in ah-ha!)
ﻮ ﻭ Wow (like w in wow, or oo in poodle)
ﻳﻴﻲ ﻱ Ya (like y in yes, or i in bit, or ie in piece)

لا combo letter lam-alif

ء ?

Diacritical Marks


Harokat

Marks are displayed decorating an Alif.
ﺎَ fatha
ﺎً fathatan
ﺎِ kasra
ﺎٍ kasratan
ﺎُ dhomma
ﺎٗ inverted dhomma
ﺎٌ dhammatan
ﺎّ shadda
ﺎْ sukun (sokoon)
ﺎٔ hamza above
ﺎٕ hamza below
ﺎٰ superscript Alif
ﺎٖ subscript Alif


Pronunciation

أَ "ah"
أ "ah"
حَ "hah"
رَ "rah"
مَ "mah"
لَ "leh"
وَ "weh"
اِ "i" like bit
بِ "bi" like bit
اً "in"
كُ "ku"
لُ "lu"
تٌ "toon"
ةٌ "toon"
دٌ "doon"
رْ "are"
مْ "mm"
نْ "nn"
إ "eh"

Greetings

مَرْحَباً mar-ha-bin

People Nouns

بِنْتٌ bin-toon "girl"
بَناتٌ bi-neh-toon "girls"
وَلَدٌ well-eh-doon "boy"
أوْلادٌ al-leh-doon "boys"
إمْرَأةٌ em-rah-ah-doon "woman"
نِساءٌ nee-seh-oon "women"
رَجُلٌ reh-joo-loon "man"
رِجالٌ re-eh-jeh-loon "men"

Eats

البِنْتُ تَأكُلُ al-bin-too tah-koo-loo "the girl eats"
الوَلَدُ يَأكُلُ al-well-eh-doo yeah-ka-loo "the boy eats"
الأوْلارٔ يَأكُلونَ el-oh-yeh-do yeah-koo-loo-nuh "the boys eat"
اِلدْأةُ يَأكُلُ al-mar-eho tah-koo-loo "the woman eats"
الرَّجُلُ يَأكُلُ are-joo-loo yeah-koo-loo "the man eats"

Drinks

البِنْتُ تَشْرَبُ al-bin-too tesh-ur-ah-boo "the girl drinks"
البَناتُ يَشْرَبْنَ al-bi-neh-too yeah-shrub-nuh "the girls drink"
الوَلَدُ يَشْرَبُ al-well-eh-doo yeah-shar-uh-boo "the boy drinks"
اِلدْأةُ تَشْرَبُ al-mar-ah-too tesh-ur-ah-boo "the woman drinks"
الرَّجُلُ يَشْرَبُ al-rah-jah-yoo yeah-shar-uh-boo "the man drinks"

Runs

البِنْتُ يَجْري al-bin-too teh-jur-ee "the girl runs"
البَناتُ يَجْرينَ al-bi-na-too yeah-jur-ee-nah "the girls run"
الوَلَدُ يَجْري al-weh-leh-doo yeh-jur-ee "the boy runs"
اِلدْأةُ يَجْري al-mar-ah-too teh-jur-ee "the woman runs"
الرَّجُلُ يَجْري al-rah-jah-yoo yeh-jur-ee "the man runs"

Reads

البِنْتُ تَقْرَأَ al-bin-too tah-kar-ah-oh "the girl reads"
الوَلَدُ يَقْرَأُ al-weh-leh-doo yah-kar-ah-oh "the boy reads"
اِلدْأةُ يَقْرَأُ al-mar-ah-too tah-kar-ah-oh "the woman reads"
الرَّجُلُ يَقْرَأُ al-rah-jah-yoo yah-kar-ah-oh "the man reads"